Crystallizing Public Opinion has ratings and 22 reviews. Gerry said: Simply a fascinating read – not only educational but reflective of an America ne. I find that there have been minimal societal and cultural changes, since when Edward Bernays published Crystallizing Public Opinion. Few books have been as quietly powerful as Edward L. Bernays’s Crystallizing Public Opinion. First published in , it is a groundbreaking and, as history has .

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Bernays gives an overview of the mentality of the “herd,” talking about the emotions and primal drives for which the herd has an affinity.

Uniformity is, in fact, largely natural and only partly artificial. A growing realization of the importance of public opinion and the role of propaganda in in- fluencing crystalliziing was evidenced by books containing sermons, dialogues and letters sometimes illus- trated with woodcuts and etchings which were peddled among the people by traveling booksellers.

The resulting material must of course be truthful and accurate—and furthermore it must be well-written and dispensed with sensitivity to the needs of the various media through which it will be broadcast. Enrico Caruso, Gatti-Casazza, director of the Metropolitan Opera, and others highly regarded by their countrymen in Italy, sent in- spiriting telegrams which had a decided effect in raising Italian morale, so far as cfystallizing depended upon assurance of American cooperation.

This process of informing the public was often merely the now-familiar whitewash. Each, it is important to remember, finds in consequence the rationality of his posi- tion flawless and is quite incapable of detecting in it the fallacies which are obvious to his oppo- nent, to whom that particular series of assump- tions has not been rendered acceptable by herd suggestion. Properly practiced, its methods are based on the realization that the public and private interest coincide.

He chose for his first work an extremely interesting article by a well-known physician, written about the interest- ing thesis that “the pace that kills” is the slow, deadly, dull routine pace and not the pace of life SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS 17 under high pressure, based on work which in- terests and excites.

Roger Babson put it correctly when he said, “War taught us the power of propaganda. The American Petroleum Institute stressed the burden of taxes. Opinoin advice is given not only on actions which take place, but also on the use of mediums which bring these actions to the public it is desired to reach, no matter whether these mediums be the printed, the spoken or the visualized word — that is, advertising, lec- tures, the stage, crystalliing pulpit, the newspaper, the photograph, the wireless, the mail or any other form of thought communication.


Crystallizing Public Opinion

The advocacy of what we don’t believe in is propaganda. Solon greatly improved the relations between the ruling groups of Athens and the people by giving the masses the right to vote in the assembly and to elect the Council of Four Hundred.

One client is advised to give up a Rolls-Royce car and to buy a Ford, because the public has definite con- cepts of what ownership of each represents— another man may be given the contrary advice. The salary stipulated was not without popular interest from both points of view.

The professional practice of public relations varies. On the contrary, his attitude toward them is almost always one of frank cynicism, with indifference as its mildest form and contempt as its commonest. A recent survey of twenty-five public relations leaders in the United States and other countries, by the Public Relations Bluebook indicates some of these variations.

This demanded greater adjust- ment of groups and individuals. On the other hand there were powerful political influ- ences which were against such a result.

Also, of equal significance I would rate Bernays’ undertaking on stereotypes, susceptibility to suggestion, preconceptions characteristic to the public mind. Of course this is a generalization but broadly it represented the general viewpoint. Five years later—again just a year after Lippmann’s The Phantom Public appeared—Bernays published a second book on public relations, Propaganda.

Rosebault, William Trotter, Oswald Garrison Villard, and others to whom I owe a debt of gratitude for their clear analyses of the public’s mind and habits; and on the other hand, I have illustrated these principles by a number of spe- cific examples which serve to bear them out. By the end of the 16th Century such manuscript bulletins became familiar in Germany and Italy. Tarde thought of the public as composed of individuals not in immediate contact, and public opinion as the product of the printing press.

And, through late Greek and Roman times, this continued as the most powerful instrument of political propaganda and agitation.

The public relations counsel is the lineal descendant, to be sure, of the circus advance-man and of the semi-journalist promoter of small-part ac- tresses. The Farmer-Labor Party, the Socialist Party despite years of campaigning have failed to become even strongly recognizable opponents to the established groups. It accelerated public understanding of public relations.

One must be willing however to take a deeper dive as well. He must isolate ideas and develop them into events so that they can be more readily understood and so that they may claim attention as news. They argue from the one to the other. The commentaries of Julius Caesar furnish an example of history as a tool of public relations.

Lovers have been parted by bitter quarrels on theories of pacificism or militarism; and when an argument upon an abstract question engages opponents they often desert the main line of argument in order to abuse each other. Motion and still pictures were taken of the event. Thus journalism was born, an influential factor in the shaping of public opinion. The public relations counsel must therefore generate news”no matter what the medium which broadcasts this news.

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These openings excited wide interest, not only in the three cities directly concerned, but through- out the entire country.

He realized that the demand for bacon as a break- fast food would naturally be increased by the wide dissemination of this truth. The department accordingly does exactly this. Propaganda and public relations be- came interchangeable terms in this period. And just before the War ended, with hopes for a brave new world, many institutions in society, profit and non-profit, looked closely at what their relationships to society had been, and considered more carefully what they were to be in the future.

Mar 28, C McW rated it it was amazing. Early on the evolution of this process became a part of the political machine. While the special pleader in law, the lawyer for the defense, has always been accorded a formal hearing by judge and jury, this has not been the case before the court of public opinion.

Renaissance leaders paid close attention to the -public point of view. This is one of the most powerful forces making for progress in society because it makes for receptivity and open-mindedness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Without doubt, Bernays’ principles can be successfully applied to the present day reality with obvious implicit considerations to technological advancements that transformed the scene of advertising marketing even more. Elmer Davis jheaded the Office of War Information.

Full text of “Bernays, Edward L. Crystalizing Public Opinion ( ) (no OCR)”

Specialized fields such as education. Oratory, newspapers, meet- ings, committees, pamphlets and books and cor- respondence wooed the colonists’ support for independence from British rule. This faith led to some disillusion- ment, but at the same time helped to further the process of democracy in public life, and provide the background for a greater awareness of the use of communications media as tools to shape attitudes.

However, the reformers’ faith in publicity did have the effect of initiating activities which later on developed into the activities of the counsel on public relations. Their expressed opinion, he believed, would definitely modify the bobbed hair vogue.