12/9/17 química la química es la ciencia que estudia la materia, su composición, la organización de los elementos que la forman las transformaciones que. Isomería C8H FR. Felipe Rodriguez. Updated 14 November Transcript. Isómeros. C8H A continuación,. observarán.. La fórmula. -Isomería estructural- Ejemplo: La isomería estructural es importante dentro del estudio de la química orgánica ya que permite conocer la.

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Estructura y Estereoquímica de Alcanos – ppt video online descargar

Conformational Analysis of Propane Caption: Conformations with Extremely Bulky Groups Caption: The melting point curve for n-alkanes with even numbers of carbon atoms is slightly higher than that for alkanes with odd numbers of carbons. The four hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the central carbon atom, with bond lengths of 1.

For butane there will be two different staggered conformations: These conformations have equal energies, and they are present in equal amounts. Conformations of Cyclohexane Caption: In the Newman projection it is easier to see the steric interaction between the methyl substituent and the hydrogens and carbons of the ring. An equatorial methyl group will be anti to the C3. The simplest alkane is methane, CH4. Totally Eclipsed Conformation of Butane Caption: The other eclipsed conformations are lower in energy than the totally eclipsed conformation but are still more unstable than the staggered conformations.


The high reactivity of cyclopropanes is due to the non-linear overlap of the sp3 orbitals. This puckered conformation reduces the eclipsing of adjacent CH2 groups.

Nomenclature of Alkyl Groups Caption: Los substituyentes axiales interfieren con los H axiales del C 3 y C 5. Chair Conformations of cis-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane Caption: Often, the longest chain with the most substituents is not obvious. When a bond of propane rotates, the torsional energy varies much like it does in ethane, but with 0. The ring strain of a planar cyclobutane results from two factors: Rotations about the center bond in butane iisomeria different molecular shapes.

In the actual molecule, the boat conformation is skewed to give the twist boat, a conformation with less eclipsing of bonds and less interference between the two flagpole hydrogens. When there are quimiva carbon chains of organic same length, the one that has the most substituents must be chosen to name the compound.

The equatorial bonds are directed outward, toward the equator of the ring.

Isomería cis-trans

Any carbon with four sigma bonds has an sp3 hybridization. As they are numbered here, the odd-numbered carbons have their upward bonds axial and their downward bonds equatorial.

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The angle compression of cyclopropane is To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policyincluding cookie policy. The methyl group is axial in one conformation, and equatorial in the other. Conformations of Cyclopropane Caption: Newman Isomria of Butane Caption: Interconversion between chair conformations require that cyclohexane go through its higher energy conformations.

This interference is called a 1,3-diaxial interaction. The angle strain and the torsional strain in organic make this ring size extremely reactive.

The unfavorable conformation has both methyl groups in axial positions, with a 1,3-diaxial interaction between them. When looking for the longest continuous chain, look to find all the different chains of that length. C5H12 C H 3 2 n-pentano iso-pentano neo-pentano Chapter 3.

Estructura y Estereoquímica de Alcanos

They are named by replacing the -ane ending of the alkane with -yl. Two chair conformations are possible for cis-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane.

The anti conformation is lowest in energy, and the totally eclipsed conformation is highest in energy.